Collection: Part 3

Research part 3

Heydar Aliyev Centre by Zaha Hadid Architects

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Heydar Aliyev Centre by Zaha Hadid Architects

The Heydar Aliyev centre uses Glass Fibre Reinforced Concrete on the outside of the building, which has properties of high tensile strength of fibre glass, as well as the rigidity and compression strength of concrete. I would use this material on my model for the part of the station, in order to create the curving shapes and hold structure, whilst still remaining a white neutral colour.

Final idea design inspiration

When looking for inspiration for my final design, I decided to review my previous sketch models, which were inspired by Aldo Van Eyck's pattern style. However, when looking at these, I also noticed that I had used a lot of curves and loops in my work, which I intended to also bring into my final model. Because of this, I decided to start to research other designers that have used curves. One of the first designs that I came across was Lucky Knot bridge by NEXT. Situated in China, the bridge takes inspiration from the mobius strip, which is a band twisted and stuck together to give the shape one continuous twisted face that loops round. found these designs very similar to mine. I want to try and use these forms in my work, looking at the repetition of loops in my work, that can give the appearance of connection and fluidity in transport, with all connections meeting at the station.

mobius strip

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The different train lines and tunnels that run through Shoreditch Highstreet station

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View of the railway from Nomadic Community gardens

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Box park railway bridge

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View outside Shoreditch Highstreet Station

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Shoreditch Highstreet Station platform

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Stairs up to the station

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outside Shoreditch Highstreet station entrance

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Underpass outside Shoreditch Highstreet Station

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transport systems around site

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map showing the change in population across London

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map showing the change in population across London

This map is useful for me as it gives some overall context to the areas of London but also to the region of my site, which is in Shoreditch. The map shows that the area of Shoreditch and surrounding areas has seen a massive increase in population growth, between 150,000- 200,000 more people. This is useful information when it comes to designing and implementing my site, and thinking about the end user, as an increased population can affect the design and solution to transport in the area.

Graph showing the increase in Londons population over the years

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map showing the main roads and smaller roads in an area in London

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Map showing connections across the main London stations

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Playgound by Aldo Van Eyck

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Sonsbeek Pavillion plan, by Aldo Van Eyck

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New York multiple highway, by Renzo Picasso, 1929

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The Death and Life of American Cities, by Jane Jacobs

Jane Jacobs was a writer and journalist, who was an urban theorist and critic

map showing the connections of transportation links, energy pipelines, and internet and satellite paths between cities and countries, by Parag Khanna

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Parag Khanna

 One of the other talks I listened to was called 'How megacities are shaping the map of the world', by Parag Khanna, a global strategist, who believes that the rise in megacities can lead the way for a connected global network, that can benefit the environment, economy, and its inhabitants. The maps he presents show a different world to the normal globes we are shown, as he instead shows us a map of connections, which he refers to as the human body. The 'skeleton' is the backbone of a country, which is all the transport links that connect across it. The 'vascular' system that powers it are the oil and gas pipelines that also run through it. The 'nervous' system is the internet and satellite connections and paths that run all over the globe and keep everywhere connected.

His talk was from a geopolitical point of view, which provided an interesting context into how cities run and operate, but also how all forms of connections can improve the world, by looking at the wider context of not just a city, but the whole global population, economy, and environment, and what impact connected cities, can have on it. This was very relevant to my own project as this looked at the connectivity of cities, through both physical transport to technology and internet. It has helped me understand the wider context of how cities impact the wider global economy.

Chongqing transit map

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Chongqing transit design by Peter Calthorpe

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Bangkok MRT Station Plans

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Urban transformation, Transit orientated Development and the sustainable City, by Ronald A. Altoon and James C. Auld

This book looks at the the different transit orientated projects going on throughout a city, and how they can be designed to produce a sustainable city. The emphasis of the design is around the transport routes both in and out of buildings and developments, and shows the different scales of development, and categorises them as follows:

  • Transit Station Design - station should facilitate the movement of passengers from the outside world, through the station, to the vehicles. Should be easy to navigate. Serves as a functional need.
  • Transit Orientated Development -  Real Estate developed next to existing/ planned underground or surface public transport, and should provide direct access for this, without directing people elsewhere or interrupting the flow of people.
  • Transit Adjacent Development -  A development that thrives due to its proximity to a transport station. It may be situated a block away or across the street, but it must have direct and convenient access to the station.
  • Transit Environment  Development - Is a developmental area that is altered in some way due to the convenience of being located walking distance from a transit station. It is therefore able to have an unusual design, such as extra bike space and parking space due to this.
  • Transit Inducing Development - Is a development inspired by the pending arrival of a public transit, and can influence the location of the station.
  • Development Inducing Transit - A development that causes transit stations and routes to be directed into it, where routes were previously unavailable, as the number of people in that area rises.

 This helped me understand the various ways that developments and transportation can co exist together in order to help decongest the flow of people and allow people to move through and use the space easier and quicker. However, I am unsure as to whether I am designing a new development or trying to increase transportation in an existing development, but the book covers all types of projects, so that I can see previous examples and how they work. I also found the diagrams and maps really helpful, showing the different routes took by people and transport through and around the buildings.

making cities work, by George Hazel and Roger Parry

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Ideal Cities, Utopianism and the (Un)Built Environment, by Ruth Eaton

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Le Corbusiers 'Plan Voisin' model

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Proposed plan to pedestrianise London, Zaha Hadid Architects

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Proposed plan to pedestrianise Oxford Street, put forward by the Mayor of London

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Hyperloop one, by BIG and Tesla

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inFORM, by MIT media lab

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Emirates Airways cablecar, by Wilkinson Eyre

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Emirates Airways cablecar, by Wilkinson Eyre

This mode of transport allows users to be suspended 90 metres above ground as they go over the river Thames, giving them views of London as they make their commute across the river. The cable car is a more scenic mode of transportation, and as it is suspended in the air, it takes up little space on the ground, and the pillars that hold it up could be used to create buildings, or could be buildings themselves in which the cable car passes over.

This is quite an interesting mode of transport I could include into my project, and could think specially how this could be made possible throughout a city, and could even be used to connect buildings together without the need to go outside.

The Design museum: Beazley Designs of the year, Lycée Schorge secondary school, by Kere Architecture

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The Design museum: Beazley Designs of the year, Warka Water, by Arturo Vittori

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The Design museum: Beasley Designs of the year, Weltstadt-Refugees' memories and futures, by Schlesische27

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The Design museum: Beazley Designs of the year, The Calais builds project, by Grain Hassett

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The Design Museum: Beazley Designs of the year, Automomonous-rail rapid transit, by CRRC

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The Design Museum: Beazley Designs of the year, Automomonous-rail rapid transit, by CRRC

This design also focuses on the future of cities and modern technology, looking at self driving drains and public transport. What interested me about this project was the possibility that my project could run alongside this one, as I could design for a community based around this public transport, and look into different routes it could take, as it does not require tracks or rails and so therefor is not limited to a particular path, and could be made affordable for everyone.

The Design museum: Beasley Designs of the year, Croft lodge studio, by Kate Darby Architects and David Connor design

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The Design museum: Beasley Designs of the year, Croft lodge studio, by Kate Darby Architects and David Connor design

This project was an interesting look into conservation whereby a studio was designed around a 300 year old cottage, with an exterior being built over the ruins of the cottage, which creates a contrasting interior to the new white clinical room.

I liked this project because it took the old and new together in an interesting way, as the Architect could have demolished the cottage and built a new building on top, but instead decided to keep the historic cottage in tact. For me, this could be used in my project, as although I am looking at future technologies and materials, it is important to preserve the old and historic, as an important part of culture, history, and identity of a place.

Tate Modern: Pavilion suspended in room, by Cristina Iglesias

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Tate Modern: American Surfaces, by Stephen Shore

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Tate Modern: American Surfaces, by Stephen Shore

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Serpentine Gallery: Das New Yorker Atelier, Abridged; by Wade Guyton

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Serpentine Gallery: Das New Yorker Atelier, Abridged; by Wade Guyton

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RIBA exhibition, Conservationism or the long reign of Pseudo-Georgian architecture, by Pablo Bronstein

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RIBA exhibition, Conservationism or the long reign of Pseudo-Georgian architecture, by Pablo Bronstein

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Guggenheim Bilbao, by Frank Gehry

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Lucky Knot Bridge, by NEXT

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Road access to different local areas from Shoreditch Highstreet

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View of the railway from Nomadic Community gardens

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Bike storage outside the station

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Shoreditch Highstreet Station platform

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Inside of Shoreditch Highstreet station

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football pitches underneath Shoreditch Highstreet railway

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Transport systems around site

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London infrastructure plan 2050: Transport supporting paper, by the Mayor of London

Whilst researching for possible sites in London with poor transport connections, I came across a proposal by the Mayor of London, which sets his plan for Londons infrastructure and transport in 2050, which contained lots of useful information displayed in graphs and maps that was easy to read and understand the current and future situation of London, and what the proposal can do to help provide transport for an increasing population. The graphs show a trend across London of a growing population, but also shows the transport layout of roads, but also methods of transport. The Mayor also explained and linked Londons transport into its growth and success, and its importance in maintaining connections both regionally and globally.

I found this document really useful and interesting, and it links in with my previous research into Sadiq Khans manifesto and vision for London in terms of transport. Even though the document was showing his vision for transport, it still provided a background of information and figures relevant to London as a case study, which I can then take and use in my project. I also know that these statistics are accurate, as this is a government document, and so I can use these statistics to help inform my opinion as to what to do with my site, and how it links in to the overall region of London.

graph showing comparison between cycling and cars compared to the increasing population

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graph showing the levels of employment across London

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Aldo Van Eyck

Aldo Van Eyck was a dutch Architect who was active after WWII, and well known for his patterns that he drew and created his public spaces and buildings from. We were shown his work in class as an example of how he uses patterns in his drawing, which we then attempted to do ourselves. He came up with simple patterns using straight and curved lines, often incorporating circles into his designs. He used a structuralist approach to design, and was known for his playgrounds h designed, which stemmed from that fact that young children were playing in the rubble of bombed buildings after WWII, and so he saw that the element of play was interesting and useful, yet recognised that it was dangerous to play in this debris. Therefor he started t utilise public space around Amsterdam, creating playgrounds and social spaces to spaces that would have otherwise have been empty and un-used.

Amsterdam Orphanage, by Aldo Van Eyck

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New York multiple highway, by Renzo Picasso, 1929

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Sadiq Khan's proposal for London

I Looked into the London mayor Sadiq Khan, as I wanted to look at transport and cities from a more political context, with Khan being responsible for the proposed plan for the future of London, that will see it deal with a population increase of 70, 000 a year, an increase in the number of cars on the roads, which leads to more pollution into what he calls 'the lungs of the city'; the green belts of London. Sadiq Khan's transport proposal sees the transport fares froze, in order to ensure that it is still kept affordable for everyone to use From a political point of view, he views it as being at the heart of the city, and is responsible for the city, and therefore the economy, function. His plan is to modernise the TFL, and make a modern, more efficient public sector organisation, reinvention the profits into increasing the capacity of transport. His goal was also to promote the use of bike in the city, with plans to make cycle paths and promote public walkways and using the congestion charge to try and encourage less traffic in parts of the city, and instead switch to bikes and walking.

I found that looking at his proposals was interesting as often an Architect doesn't get to decide the type of project they undertake, whereas the mayor of London has the power to decide projects and bring about change in a city. He is also part of the reason for the proposal of pedestrianising Oxford street, as I have looked at the design side of this proposal, it is now interesting to see the political side of it.

Through seeing the economic and political change to transport one through the government, such as congestion charges and the proposed ideas, which is then presented to architects and urban designers as a brief. it is also interesting as London will be were my site is based, and I will be looking into how the city uses transportation and what I can do to improve this. Khan's proposals also align with my own ideas for transport in cites, as I too think that it should be kept affordable for everyone, and should work towards creating environmentally friendly transport that is fast and reliable, with the aim to reduce congestion and pollution in cities.

http://www.sadiq.london/a_modern_and_affordable_transport_network 

https://www.london.gov.uk/city-hall-blog/eight-highlights-mayors-draft-london-plan

the layout of the worlds cities, by Parag Khanna

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Peter Calthorpe

I decided to undertake some secondary research through listening to lectures and talks given on the topic of urban design and transport in cities. One of these talks I watched was given by urban designer Peter Calthorpe, called 7 principles for building better cities:

https://www.ted.com/talks/peter_calthorpe_7_principles_for_building_better_cities#t-291603 

His 7 principles are:

1) Preserve the natural environment

2) Mixed use and mixed income neighbourhoods

3) Walkable streets for human scale neighbourhoods

4) Prioritise networks and auto-free streets

5) connect neighbourhoods by increasing  density of road network and limit block size

6) Develop high quality public transport 

7) focus on the urban density and mix to transit capacity

 

Calthorpe talks about how we need to design better cities in the face of a growing population, where the urban environment will double in the next 30 years, in order to accommodate 3 billion more people. He talks about how urban sprawl can isolate people and separate classes and groups. He talks about one of his models he made for the state of California, which can expect 50 million people by 2050. His model of smart growth reduces the urban sprawl, and instead looks at compact, close quarter, integrated living between social groups with mixed use developments. This resulted in bringing communities together, using less land through compact living, as well as resulting in less car miles travelled which results in lower greenhouse gasses and CO2 emissions. He also argues that paving the way for close quarter cities gives more opportunities to walk and cycle to places, saving money on cars whilst also increasing their health.

He also talks about high density sprawl, and the ways its citizens can move around the large city yet still walk. An example he gave was the city of Chongqing in China, with a population of around 30 million. The urban design entered around transit stations around the city so that everyone can work or live within walking distance of a station. This works out so that people can use public transport to go from one side of the city to the other, but then they are able to walk to their destination, instead of driving the whole way.

I found his talk interesting, as he makes an argument of showing how streets can be re-imagined to include all types of transportation, and promote walking, cycling, and public transport, whilst making the streets car-less to lower emissions. He also wrote a book called 'The Next American Metropolis', which I would like to read as I agreed with the ideas he put forward.

 

Bangkok MRT Station Site analysis

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Bangkok MRT Station section

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Urban transformation, Transit orientated Development and the sustainable City, by Ronald A. Altoon and James C. Auld

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Making cities work, by George Hazel and Roger Parry

This book gave a useful insight into not just ways of transportation in a city, but also case studies of different cities that this has worked for. its whole message is that public transport in cities needs to sustain the reason why people live in a city in the first place; to be more connected to everything and everyone. It says that transport needs to be 'frequent, fast, and safe', and should look at replacing cars and roads, that cause congestion and pollution. Its also makes a point of stating that transportation shouldn't be the attraction of the city, which is what has happened in many cities, as the spaces gets taken up by roads and car parks. It says that transport is about moving the maximum amount of people, not vehicles, which I can agree with, and I to think that transportation shouldn't be big and exposed and take up a lot of the city, but be concealed, and allow people to get around with congesting the city.

Future circulation and skyscrapers in New York, in L'Illustrazione Italiana, 1913

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Future circulation and skyscrapers in New York, in L'Illustrazione Italiana, 1913

I found this image interesting as it showed a section of a city, with all the methods of transportation and all the layers of New York. At the time, this was considered futuristic, with subway trains running underground, hidden away from street level, and various walkways between buildings. These various layers created more connectivity both in the city and between buildings and people, as well utilising different heights, not just having ground level access everywhere. The image shows the separation of different modes of transport, with people using he walkways and bridges high above, with cars and buses using the street, and trains underground. It was hoped that the separation of these modes of transportation would ease congestion, whilst proving more efficient, as high rise cities such as Chicago and New York had become a symbol of modernity in America, and zoning laws introduced by Harvey Wiley Corbett looked at still making these high-rise buildings accessible.

Ideal Cities, Utopianism and the (Un)Built Environment, by Ruth Eaton

This book contains the historical origin of cities and settlements, and shows the progression of them and how they have developed in search of civilisation creating the perfect city, based on, social, cultural, and political factors of the different time periods. 

One area of the book that particularly appealed to me was the chapter 'Cities for the machine age, which describes how cities started to change due to the industrial revolution of the early 20th century . in this section was corbusiers work on 'Ideal cites', and his plans and models for his ideas, such as 'Ville Contemporaine', 'a contemporary city for 3 million inhabitants', and 'Plan Voisin'. Through reading about Le Corbusier in this book, I saw his ideals in architecture, and his ideas about how a city should be laid out, as he believed skyscrapers were 'the brain of the city', and also took a liking to geometry; taking inspiration from the cubist movement. He also thought that transport routes played an important part in the city, and designs were often based around  intersecting highways, with a multi level terminal, as underground trains would run below ground level, and overground routes connecting to the main lines, and the roof serves as a runway for aeroplanes. The skyscrapers show the hierarchy of the city, as all the heads of big companies would be stationed at the top of these buildings, and the important decisions would be made in them. He envisioned the elite living off he ground in high rise buildings that were equipped with everything. he designed the high rise buildings to contain a high population density of the people, whilst only taking up 15% of the ground area. This meant he could change traditional streets into larger parks. I was particularly interested in this layout and transportation system, even though I don't agree with the high rise buildings, but How he tried to  use one terminal for all forms of transportation, both in and around the city, nationally, and internationally, making the city more connected.

After reading about him in this book, I want to continue to research him and his work, to see some of his ideas about cities and connectivity.

Hyperloop one, by BIG and Tesla

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Hyperloop one, by BIG and Tesla

The Hyperloop is currently being constructed, with its first route being made between Abu-Dhabi and Dubai, taking just 12 to travel between the two. its design is to use air pressure to force the train up, therefor creating less pressure and friction on the rails, so that it can be fired through the tube faster. This takes a new step forward in modern transportation that can be used to connect cities together. The design also incorporates driverless pods that can also go on the roads, so that you can be transported from one place to another, not just to the train stations.

This design show us a new way of transportation that for the first time can also be linked to infrastructure, and can go door to door between buildings in a matter of minutes. This project I feel is really exciting as this can play a big part in connecting people together, and making for a better quality of life, which can improve the buildings of the city by having better connections with the outside world

Micro Units, by nArchitecture

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The Design Museum: Beasley designs of the year exhibition

The Beasley designs of the year is an exhibition that recognises the excellence in design, nominated by international experts across six categories:

  • Architecture
  • Digital
  • Graphics
  • Fashion
  • Product
  • Transport

visiting this exhibition was really beneficial for me in terms of learning about different designs that linked into my project idea, with a variety of project included from outside architecture, all incorporating different ideas at different scales. What I found particularly interesting was how much I was influenced and inspired by the other categories outside of Architecture, such as Transport design. I felt that this was another way of looking at an urban scale and the connectivity of people, something which I was very keen to look into, and has given me possible ideas of looking into how Architecture and transport design can co-exist and help each other on an urban scale.

I also found that a lot of these designs were embodying modern technologies and materials, making them more efficient and able to perform their function better. A lot of the Architecture design were focused around a struggling community, or a community in need, and looked at solving a problem that was apparent in that community.

The Design museum: Beasley Designs of the year, Port House, by Zaha Hadid and Patrick Schumacher

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The Design museum: Beasley Designs of the year, Hegnhudet, Memorial and learning centre, by Blakstad Haffner Arkitekter

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The Design museum: Beasley Designs of the year, Weltstadt-Refugees' memories and futures, by Schlesische27

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The Design museum: Beasley Designs of the year, Weltstadt-Refugees' memories and futures, by Schlesische27

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The Design museum: Beasley Designs of the year, Mrs Fan's plug-in house, by People Architecture Office

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The Design Museum: Beazley Designs of the year, light traffic, by Carlo Ratti at MIT Senseable city lab

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The Design Museum: Beazley Designs of the year, light traffic, by Carlo Ratti at MIT Senseable city lab

I found this project very interesting, as the concept of it is a system designed to speed up traffic and have  continuous flow of cars at a crossroads, which in turn decreases pollution , as well as speeding up travel time so that people can get to their destination quicker. This project links into my own, as I am interested in how transport and architecture can link in together in order to increase the quality of life and connectivity between people, which this project does by reducing transport time, so that you can access further distances in a shorter time. It is also sustainable through lowering Carbon emissions.

What I also like about this design is how it looks to the future for modern technology, as it prepares to adapt for driverless cars, by updating the transport links in cities so that they are compatible, and therefor easing congestion; something that is a major problem in cities.

Tate Modern: Pavilion suspended in room, by Cristina Iglesias

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Tate Modern: American Surfaces, by Stephen Shore

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Tate Modern: American Surfaces, by Stephen Shore

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Serpentine Gallery: Das New Yorker Atelier, Abridged; by Wade Guyton

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Serpentine Gallery: Das New Yorker Atelier, Abridged; by Wade Guyton

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serpentine Gallery: Das New Yorker Atelier, Abridged; by Wade Guyton

Wade Guytons paintings and collages explore the impact of digital technologies by using computers and printing, and often slightly mismatches his images. I liked his collages, in which he closely studies a material found in the urban environment, and often gives no context, background, or scale to these materials

RIBA exhibition, Conservationism or the long reign of Pseudo-Georgian architecture, by Pablo Bronstein

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RIBA exhibition, Conservationism or the long reign of Pseudo-Georgian architecture, by Pablo Bronstein

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